HSCI 3023: Newton to the Present
Final examination
Time: 4:30 - 6:30pm Thursday, Dec. 11. Place: PHSC 224

Instructions: Write essay answers to ONE QUESTION 1 from part A and ONE QUESTION 1 from part B.
You may consult class notes and assigned readings in writing your answer, and you are encouraged to
prepare an outline, but you may not transcribe a prepared answer. Transcription from print or electronic
sources is prohibited, except for brief quotations (less than one per page), which should include a complete
citation. You will be asked to turn off phones during the exam.

1. Describe two major episodes in the history of science that do not fit Kuhn's model
of science, explaining how each episode fails to conform.

2. Is it more accurate to describe the modern theory of evolution as a theory or a paradigm?

3. What are some of the indications to a non-scientist that a consensus exists in a scientific field?
Illustrate your answer by considering the formation of scientific consensus in the case of tobacco
smoking causing cancer, and the case of climate change.

4. Does the development of climate science since the first IPCC report fit Kuhn's model for
'normal science'? Describe at least two events or activities that support your answer.


5. What scientific developments, between 1900 and 1950, led to the delayed acceptance of
Darwin's theory of natural selection as the mechanism of evolution?

6. How did the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis affect the development of the Cold War?
Suggest at least three specific consequences.

7. According to Oreskes and Conway, what strategies did climate denialists adopt from
the earlier campaign to deny that tobacco smoking causes cancer?

8. What was the scientific basis for the first claims (1) that global average temperatures
were increasing abnormally and (2) that this change was caused by human activities?